Urie Bronfenbrunner created the Human Ecological Systems Model in 1979 which theorized that every aspect of a child's environment affects how a child grows and develops. The model begins with the individual and includes biological aspects of their life such as their age, sex, and genetic traits. The model then goes on and breaks down an individual's environment into five levels: the Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem.
The Microsystem is the system closest to the individual. This includes the individual's family, home, school, church group, etc. The Microsystem is the most influential level of the Ecological Systems Theory.
The Mesosystem is the second ecological level. The Mesosystem includes interconnected parts of an individual's Microsystem. For example, the way an individual's parents interact with the individual's school create part of the Mesosystem.
The Exosystem includes people and places that the individual has no control over and may not interact with but that affect the individual's life. Examples would include a parent's job, neighborhood, support services, media, etc.
The Macrosystem is the broadest level and includes the attitudes and ideologies of an individual's culture. Cultural contexts such as the national government, growing up in an industrialized society, and one's heritage all have an impact on how an individual develops.
The Chronosystem relates to how time impacts an individual's development. This includes how things change over generations, the amount of time it takes to recovery from trauma, and ages at which their are events that impact development.
The pyramid is based solely on the needs of one individual. Maslow said that you can't move on without mastering the level where the individual is at. When the individual gets to the top of the pyramid they are called Self actualizing people and they can realize good from bad. These people are okay with being alone and can say "I am having a bad day, but I know tomorrow is a new day and I'm excited to see what it brings!"
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs include food water, warmth, and rest. Safety Needs include safety and security. Both of these subcategories together make up the basic needs. Without the basic needs an individual cannot form relationships or have self-esteem.
Belongingness & Love Needs are intimate relationships and friendships. Esteem Needs include a sense of accomplishments. Both of these together make up how we think about ourselves. Without achieving this we can not be self-actualizing people.
This includes morals, values, creativity, and helping others. When the individual reaches this stage they are able to depict between good and bad and can act on this.
Erikson's 8 Stages of Development
Erikson uses a cradle to grave approach for Human development. There are 8 stages or "crisis" that an individual must face and hopefully master. Each stage builds on the completion of the stages prior.
0-1 years old
Appreciation of interdependence and relatedness.
Essential question: "Can I trust the world around me?"
Trust vs Mistrust
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs Guilt
1-3 years old
Acceptance of the lifecycle from integration to deintegration.
Essential Question: Is it okay to be me?
3-6 years old
Humor, empathy, resilience.
Essential Question: Is it okay for me to do, move, and act?
6-12 years old
Humility, acceptance of the course of ones life and unfulfilled hopes
Essential Question: Can I make it in the world of people and things?
Focus: Neightsbors, School
Industry vs Inferiority
Identity vs Confusion
Intimacy vs Isolation
20-25 years old
Sense of the complexity of relationships, value of tenderness and loving freely
Essential Question: "Can I love, can I be loved?"
Focus: Romantic Relationships
12-19 years old
Sense of complexity of life; merging of sensory, logical and aesthetic perception.
Essential Question: Who am I? Who can I be?
Focus: Peers, Social relationships
Generativity vs Stagnation
Integrity vs Despair
26-64 years old
Caring for others, agape, empathy and concern.
Essential Question: Can I make my life count?
Focus: Household, Workmates
65 - death A sense of integrity strong enough to withstand physical disintegration.
Essential Question: Is it okay to have been me?
Piaget's Stages of Development
Learns through reflexes, senses, and movement.
Begins to imitate others and remember events; shifts to symbolic thinking
Comes to understand that objects do not 'disappear' when removed from their vision
Moves from reflexive actions to intentional activity
0- 2 Years
Develops language and begins to use symbols to represent objects.
Has difficulty with past and future- thinks only in the present.
Can think through operations logically in one direction.
Has difficulties understanding other points of view.
When child starts talking- 7 years old
Concrete Operational Stage
Can think logically about concrete problems.
Understands conservation and organizes things into categories and in series.
Can reverse thinking and mentally 'undo' actions
Understands past, present, and future.
First grade - 11 years old
Formal Operational Stage
Can think hypothetically and deductively.
Thinking becomes more scientific.
Solves abstract problems in logical fashion.
Can consider multiple perspectives and develops concerns about social issues, personal identity, and justice.