Group 1: karla R., Diab D., Christian W., & Gianni G.
The battle of Iwo Jima was a major battle where the US Armed Forces landed and captured the island from the Japanese Imperial Army during WWII.
Iwo Jima was the only Marine battle where the American casualties, 26,000, exceeded the Japanese -- most of the 22,00 defending the island. There were about 6,800 American servicemen killed.
Iwo Jima was a key island in Bonin about 575 miles from the Japanese coast.
The Americans needed a base near the Japanese coast where damaged B-29 bombers could land and possibly be fixed and for escort fighters that would help in the bombing compaign
Iwo Jima was probably the only Pacific Island necessary to be captured. This island was to be attacked by a B-29 bombing to turn the 8-mile-square island into a base for long-range fighters and a safe place for crippled superforts incapacitated B-29s
Naval power was not Incredibly useful in the battle, this ferocious bombardment had little effect. Hardly any of the Japanese underground fortresses were touched. Twenty-one thousand defenders of Japanese soil, burrowed in the volcanic rock of Iwo Jima, anxiously awaited the American invaders. The US sent more Marines to Iwo than to any other battle, 110,000 Marines in 880 Ships. The convoy of 880 US Ships sailed from Hawaii to Iwo in 40 days. Largest armada invasion in The Pacific
The Americans landed on the island in Feb. 1945. They used air and naval bombardment and three US marine divisions which were the third, fourth, and fifth marine divisions that were chosen for this task.
The Japanese defense
The Japanese defenders of the
island were dug into bunkers deep within the volcanic rocks.
Approximately 70,000 U.S. Marines and 20,000 Japanese soldiers took part in the battle.
Marines captured 216 Japanese soldiers, the rest either died or are MIA
Japanese defense included many tunnels and artillery emplacements. Japanese fought until death. Surrendering was dishonorable and shameful.
The first waves of Americans arrived at 9am. They got ashore fairly good but the men weren't expecting the 22,817 dug-in defenders who soon opened artillery and mortars.
The Japanese were able to cut off all reinforcement.
By Feb. 19,1945 in the afternoon, the Americans were able to get through the Japanese fire and onto the volcanic shore
Marines fought hard through bad conditions and were able to clear out the defending forces after a month. With much pride and joy, they raised the American flag in victory.
here are six Flag Raisers on the famous Iwo Jima photo. Four in the front line and two in back. The front four are (left to right) Ira Hayes, Franklin Sousley, John Bradley and Harlon Block. The back two are Michael Strank (behind Sousley) and Rene Gagnon (behind Bradley). Strank, Block and Sousley would die shortly afterwards. Bradley, Hayes and Gagnon became national heroes within weeks.
After the battle, Iwo Jima served as an emergency landing site for more than 2,200 B-29 bombers, saving the lives of 24,000 U.S. airmen. Securing Iwo Jima prepared the way for the last and largest battle in the Pacific: the invasion of Okinawa.